Introduction to Artificial Intelligence
Do "1. Learning Blackjack Strategy..." and "2. Validating Your Results". One of the variants that follow may be done for an additional 20% extra credit.
CARDS. A regular pack of 52. For simplicity, assume that all cards are equally probable (as if infinite packs of cards were shuffled to form the deck). This makes "card counting" irrelevant and thus obviates the need to model the cards remaining in the deck. A simple random number generator generating 13 values will do nicely for our purposes.
THE DEAL. The player places a bet before the deal. Both player and dealer each receive one card face down and then each receives one card face up. For simplicity, assume the player always bets one dollar.
THE PLAY. The values of the cards are: Ace, 1 or 11, as the holder wishes;
king, queen, jack, ten, 10 each; any other card, its number. The object
is to hold two or more cards that total 21 or as nearly 21 as possible
without going over 21. For example, six, four, and ace count 21; seven,
four, and ace count 12, for to call the ace 11 would put the player over
21. An ace and face card or ten in the first two cards are called a natural,
or blackjack, and win the bet at once.
After the initial deal, the player may either stand (on his first two cards, or at any later time), or may be dealt an additional card by saying “Hit me.” He may continue to draw additional cards, but once he says “I stand” he may draw no more cards. All additional cards are dealt face up. If an additional card puts the player’s count over 21, he must show his cards and the dealer collects the bet. The player’s cards are then placed face up on the bottom of the pack.
When the player has either stood or gone over 21, the dealer turns up his facedown card. As in gambling-house games, the dealer must take additional cards as long as his total is 16 or less and must stand when his total reaches 17 or more. If dealer goes over 21, he pays the player. If he stands on 21 or less, he collects from the player having a lower count, pays the player having a higher count, and has a stand-off with each player having the same count.
SETTLEMENT. A player may bet only against the dealer. All bets are settled for even money. Thus, in this simplified scenario, the player bets a dollar and either (1) beats the dealer and keeps the dollar bet and wins a dollar from the dealer, (2) ties the dealer and replays, or (3) loses the dollar bet to the dealer.
Your task: Learn optimal play for this simplified form of Blackjack using reinforcement learning. This involves several subtasks:
For a natural, 1½ times the amount of the bet.
For 21 or less in five cards, double; in six cards, triple.
For 21 composed of three sevens, triple; composed of 8-7-6, double.
If a player’s first two cards are a pair, such as two sixes or two jacks, he may play them as two different hands. If the player chooses to "split", the player turns both face up and places the amount of his original bet on each. Dealer gives him one card down to each. Then the player may hit, or stand on, each hand under the rules given above.
Essentially, the player dealt a pair can choose to play two games, each with a card of the pair as the face up card.
A player may turn up both his cards, double his bet, and “take one down for double.” In such a case he may draw only the one card.